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  1. #1

    Jan 2007
    12,274

    B8



    (*), , ( ... ), ( , ). , ɡ . .
    (sustainable development) Ϻ (sustainability) (development) (1). , (2). : (needs) . (limitations) .
    , , . ʡ ɡ (3). ڡ . ɡ : . , . : (4). " &quotBarbier) : , , ɡ (5).
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    , ɡ , . ʡ , (8).
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    , : ɡ ɡ ɡ . , ϡ . ʡ ڡ , . , , , , , , , (10).
    , " "(Salamon & Anheier) : , ǡ ǡ ǡ ǡ ϡ ѡ , . ݡ 11 ( ) (1 20) , 1990-1992 ǡ 614 . ǡ : ɡ ʡ (11).
    ɡ 1999 ǡ ɡ . ɡ (12) .
    ڡ (57357) , ѡ . " " ں ʡ ɡ ɡ ʡ ʡ ޡ : ڡ ߡ (13). , ں ɡ ѡ .

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    1- McDonald, Robert, Sustainable development as freedom, International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology Vol. 13, 2006, p. 445.
    2- UN, Our Common Future, "Chapter 2: Towards Sustainable Development", Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, UN Documents, 1987. p. 1.
    3- Ibid.
    4- McDonald, Robert, op cit, p. 446.
    5- Barbier, E. The Concept of Sustainable Economic Development, Environmental Conservation, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1987.
    6- Barry Dalal-Clayton, What is Sustainable Development, Retrieved May, 11, 2009, from
    http://www.docstoc.com/docs/2303638/...LE-DEVELOPMENT
    7- Harris, Jonathan M. Basic Principles of Sustainable Development, Working Paper No. 00-04, Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University, Medford, 2000, p. 6.
    8- Anheier, Helmut K. and Leat, Diana, Creative Philanthropy: Toward A New Philanthropy For The Twenty-First Century, London, New York: Routledge, 2006, p.7.
    9- Shaw, Aileen, Social Justice Philanthropy: An Overview, the Synergos Institute, New York, 2002, pp. 2-3.
    10- Ibid, pp. 7-8.
    11- Salamon, Lester M. and Anheier, Helmut K. The Civil Society Sector, Journal of Society: Vol. 34, No. 2, January 1997, pp. 62-63.
    12- , , , 6/4/1429, 6.
    13- 57357, , 20 2010 :
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