( ) ݡ . . .
ء . .
ɡ . 1588. . .
. (Ann Saudi Med. 2010) 13% ɡ 64% 16-18 . 6-34% 5-17% (2011Addict Behav.). .
. . (2010Atmos Environ.) (PAH) . 10-20 . . . ( ) (Chest 2011) . . (Int J Epidemiol 2010) . ( ) (Chest2011) . 20-80 ߡ 50-200 . .
. . .